An Approach for Monitoring and Evaluating Community Mitigation Strategies for COVID-19

Overview

Framework: Community mitigation methods to scale back or stop COVID-19 transmission within the United States are described in CDC’s framework for Implementation of Mitigation Strategies For Communities with Local COVID-19 Transmission.1 The implementation framework describes the present objectives, guiding ideas, and mitigation methods to scale back or stop native COVID-19 transmission.

Approach: An Approach for Monitoring and Evaluating Community Mitigation Strategies for COVID-19 describes CDC’s method to evaluating neighborhood mitigation methods and offers overarching issues to assist state, territorial, or native well being departments, tribal well being organizations, or others in monitoring and evaluating COVID-19 neighborhood mitigation methods, together with a logic mannequin, urged monitoring and analysis questions, and potential knowledge sources. The method considers outcomes that decrease COVID-19 morbidity and related mortality, results of neighborhood mitigation methods on long-standing well being disparities and social determinants of well being, and the way communities thrive socially, emotionally, and economically.

Monitoring and Evaluation Findings Can Be Used To:

  • Inform decision-making about strengthening, focusing, and stress-free mitigation methods
  • Understand particular person and neighborhood elements that assist or hinder mitigation behaviors
  • Monitor disparities and social determinants of well being and perceive how totally different populations take part in and are affected by neighborhood mitigation methods
  • Effectively talk data to the general public based mostly on culturally and linguistically acceptable methods
  • Ensure that the wants of disproportionately affected populations are met
  • Strengthen neighborhood elements and outcomes associated to epidemiology, healthcare capability, social companies, and public well being capability
  • Disseminate classes realized

Logic Model Overview

Logic Model: This logic mannequin presents the U.S. Community Mitigation Strategy for COVID-19 at a excessive stage and acknowledges that many various stakeholders are engaged on particular components of this technique.

Roles: Governments, organizations, and people assist and promote neighborhood mitigation methods throughout a number of settings and sectors, whereas paying particular consideration to disproportionately affected populations.

Community mitigation methods. Layering methods throughout settings and sectors the place individuals stay, work, be taught, and collect offers larger safeguards to scale back transmission. These methods could also be strengthened, targeted, or relaxed based mostly on native context. Through particular person, neighborhood, and environmental actions, neighborhood mitigation methods are applied that:

  • promote behaviors that stop unfold,
  • preserve wholesome environments,
  • preserve wholesome operations, and
  • put together for when somebody will get sick;

And are designed to supply outcomes that:

  • scale back publicity amongst people,
  • scale back transmission,
  • scale back burden on the well being care system and improve entry to testing and phone tracing,
  • with the long-term objectives of minimizing COVID-19 morbidity and related mortality.

Outcomes: Achieving these outcomes are important to making sure that communities thrive socially, emotionally, and economically. Working in collaboration, entities at federal, state and native ranges can monitor and consider social, emotional, and financial indicators that will embody: monetary, meals, and housing safety; healthcare entry and utilization (akin to care looking for behaviors); bodily and psychological well being; and neighborhood security and violence with particular consideration and a spotlight to disproportionately affected populations.

Logic Model

Logic model

Alternative Format

Monitoring & Evaluation Questions, Potential Indicators and Related Data Sources

Questions: The following overarching monitoring and analysis questions may be tailored to satisfy neighborhood priorities and stakeholder wants.

Indicators and Data Sources: Indicators and knowledge sources may be tailor-made to align with the context of the meant analysis. All indicators and knowledge sources used for monitoring and analysis of neighborhood mitigation methods needs to be prime quality and needs to be collected ethically (e.g., with respect for individuals, privateness, confidentiality) and scientifically (e.g.., with regard to validity, reliability, and representativeness). When accessible, use knowledge sources with a number of time-points accessible for comparability. Indicators could also be analyzed general or to take a look at particular subgroups (e.g., city vs. rural, by racial/ethnic inhabitants, socioeconomic teams, and so forth.). The following desk offers a choose variety of instance indicators and potential knowledge sources and isn’t an exhaustive checklist. Consider knowledge sources that finest meet your monitoring and analysis wants and confer with CDC’s COVID-19 Secondary Data and Statistics for publicly accessible knowledge sources. CDC doesn’t endorse any non-CDC knowledge sources.

Potential Evaluation Question

Example Indicators

Potential Data Sources

Potential Evaluation Question

  1. Which neighborhood mitigation methods do jurisdictions implement, and the way and when are they applied?

Example Indicators

  • Description and timing of Stay-at-Home/Shelter-in-Place orders
  • Description and timing of Mass Gatherings orders
  • Number/proportion of labor pressure that studies working remotely
  • Number of Community- and Faith-Based Organizations or native leaders who’re engaged to implement COVID-19 community-level mitigation methods

Potential Data Sources

  • State/Local Policy Records, Executive Orders, and Legislative Actions (e.g., Stay-at-Home or Shelter-in-Place orders, faculty dismissals, Mass Gathering orders, journey orders, non-essential enterprise closures, restrictions on non-urgent medical procedures)
  • Survey Data on Individual and Organizational Behaviors (contemplate native and nationwide surveys)

Potential Evaluation Question

  1. To what extent do people and organizations apply neighborhood mitigation methods?

Example Indicators

  • Percent change in mobility (e.g., time spent at dwelling, distance traveled, and by vacation spot akin to transit stations, retail/ leisure, and worksites)**
  • Number/proportion of inhabitants that report utilizing material face coverings outdoors the house within the final week
  • Number/proportion of inhabitants who adhere to steerage in Stay-at-Home orders, Shelter-in-Place orders, and phased re-openings
  • Number/proportion of inhabitants who report deciding to not journey or altering journey plans attributable to COVID-19
  • Percentage change in shopper spending throughout enterprise industries**

Potential Data Sources

  • Mobility Data*
  • Survey Data on Individual and Organizational Behaviors (contemplate native and nationwide surveys)
  • Organizational coverage data (e.g., faculty and childcare insurance policies, enterprise insurance policies, shared & mixture housing insurance policies)
  • Consumer Spending Data

Potential Evaluation Question

  1. What elements do communities use to evaluate readiness to strengthen, focus, or loosen up their mitigation methods over time?

Example Indicators

  • Total and incident COVID-19 assessments/circumstances/hospitalizations/deaths
  • Percentage of respiratory specimens testing optimistic for SARS-CoV-2
  • Number/proportion of public areas, workplaces, companies, colleges or properties practising acceptable cleansing and disinfection practices

Potential Data Sources

  • COVID-19 Epidemiology, Community Characteristics, Healthcare Capacity, and Public Health Capacity Indicators***
  • Survey Data on Individual and Organizational Behaviors (contemplate native and nationwide surveys)
  • State/Local Policy Records, Executive Orders, and Legislative Actions

Potential Evaluation Question

  1. What is the connection between implementation of mitigation methods and minimizing COVID-19 morbidity and related mortality?

Example Indicators

  • Total and incident COVID-19 assessments/circumstances/deaths
  • Percentage of respiratory specimens testing optimistic for SARS-CoV-2
  • Description and timing of Stay-at-Home/Shelter-in-Place orders
  • Description and timing of Mass Gatherings orders

Potential Data Sources

  • COVID-19 Epidemiology, Community Characteristics, Healthcare Capacity, and Public Health Capacity Indicators***
  • State/Local Policy Records, Executive Orders, and Legislative Actions

Potential Evaluation Question

  1. What, if any, affect have neighborhood mitigation methods had on well being disparities or social determinants of well being?

Example Indicators

  • Trends in extra circumstances, hospitalization, and mortality amongst disproportionately affected populations
  • Number/proportion of staff submitting unemployment claims
  • Number/proportion of eligible recipients enrolled in Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) /Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) vitamin packages
  • Number of calls to native/state hotline requesting housing help
  • Vaccination protection (e.g., universally beneficial vaccines amongst younger kids, adolescents)
  • Number/proportion of home violence calls to police
  • Number/proportion of people that really feel stress associated to COVID-19 has had a detrimental affect on their psychological well being

Potential Data Sources

  • COVID-19 Epidemiology, Community Characteristics, Healthcare Capacity, and Public Health Capacity Indicators***
  • State/native administrative data (e.g., unemployment claims, WIC/SNAP enrollment, foreclosures or evictions, state or native immunization data, 911 knowledge from Emergency Medical Services)
  • Survey Data on Individual Attitudes, Behaviors, and Quality of Life (contemplate native and nationwide surveys)
*Mobility knowledge sources anonymously geolocate private mobile gadgets to know particular person motion in communities and house between people.
**Methods to calculate p.c change will fluctuate based mostly on knowledge availability. If accessible, contemplate evaluating to a baseline worth. Assess what’s most possible in your state/native jurisdiction
***Data sources associated to COVID-19 Epidemiology, Community Characteristics, Healthcare Capacity, and Public Healthcare Capacity ought to confer with present indicators: CDC COVID Data Tracker or https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/open-america/surveillance-data-analytics.html as effectively these being monitoring in your state/native jurisdiction.

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